Protect your business and navigate architect liability insurance with a greater understanding. Uncover coverage, costs, and risks so that you can better protect yourself and your operations from significant exposures.

Architect liability insurance is essential coverage to protect yourself or your architecture firm when you provide design services to clients.  Unfortunately, if you fail to obtain this key coverage, or do so incorrectly, it can lead to significant risks to your business and your clients.  This article will help you understand how architect liability is structured, how it makes a major difference, and what to look out for when you purchase this all-important policy. Let’s examine this!

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What is Architect Liability Insurance?

Architects bear a unique set of risks and liabilities — after all, they are impacting the built environment for not only residential and commercial property owners but the general public as well!  This necessitates specialized coverage known as architect liability insurance which, at its core, is simply professional liability insurance or sometimes called errors & omissions (E&O) coverage.

This form of business insurance acts as a safeguard for solo practices or architecture firms against financial losses due to alleged negligence or mistakes that may arise during their operations.

The Significance of Professional Liability Insurance (E&O Coverage)

Architects rely on professional liability insurance, or errors and omissions (E&O) coverage, as a fundamental component of their insurance plans. This coverage offers protection if professionals are accused of design errors, exceeding project budgets, or other issues related to their work. Despite careful attention to detail and adopting high standards on every project, mistakes can still happen, potentially resulting in significant financial losses due to legal expenses, settlements, and court awards that result from damages related to everything from needed repairs to added costs for project delays. Comprehensive professional liability coverage helps mitigate these unforeseen risks to create stability for the architecture operations.

Distinguishing Between Types Of Coverages

  • Professional liability insurance differs significantly from a commercial general liability policy which covers bodily injury or property damage to third parties caused by direct actions (think slip and fall in your office) rather than professional activities rendered.
  • While both types have value within an architecture firm’s risk management strategy, professional liability addresses exposures specific only within this profession’s scope of services, thus making it indispensable among various insurance coverages available for architects, including workers’ compensation insurance, cyber coverage, commercial umbrellas, etc. More on the other coverages in a moment.

What does Professional Liability Insurance Cover

The scope of professional liability insurance is to protect architects from potential financial losses related to its service offerings. It primarily covers claims that stem from errors, omissions, or negligence during the execution of their professional responsibilities — for example, preparing plans to submit to a local building department for a new apartment building or a retail shopping center.

Specific Coverage Examples

An instance where this type of insurance proves invaluable involves design flaws. Let’s say an architect creates a print that results in structural problems with a building project causing a loss for the client; here, E&O coverage would shoulder any resulting legal fees, settlements, and damages awarded.

Another potential scenario could involve missed deadlines.  If an architect fails to deliver work on schedule leading to construction delays and subsequent costs for the client, this is another example where E&O coverage comes into play offering protection against such risks (i.e. the cost overruns) resulting from the supposed negligent architectural services (i.e. the design delivery delay).

One last example, if an architect overlooks a crucial safety regulation during planning, it could result in redesign and remediation work onsite. If such an unfortunate occurs, professional liability insurance provides essential coverage by handling legal defense costs and possible settlements or court awards.

Remember though while architect liability insurance affords substantial protection against many risks inherent in an architecture firm’s operations there are limitations and exclusions to what may ultimately be covered. We’ll take a closer look at some key limitations later in this article.

Different Types of Professional Liability Insurance Structures

Professional liability insurance for architects is often structured in two distinct ways: claims-made policies and occurrence-based policies. It’s important to understand what sets these structures apart.

A claims-made policy provides coverage for incidents that are reported while this same policy remains active. On the other hand, an occurrence-based policy covers any incident occurring during the policy’s term irrespective of when it’s actually reported.

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The Retroactive Date Concept

In your efforts to understand professional liability coverage more clearly, there’s a concept known as the retroactive date that you should familiarize yourself with. This comes into play primarily with claims-made policies where it signifies the earliest possible date at which a covered event can happen for you to make a claim on your current insurance plan (i.e. during the current policy period).  Before such beginning and end reporting dates, there typically will not be coverage and claims will be denied.

Tail Period or Extended Reporting Period (ERP)

With an understanding of retroactive dates in hand, let’s make sure to review one more crucial element — the tail period or extended reporting period (ERP). An ERP allows architects to report claims after their insurance policy has expired if those events giving rise to the claim occurred during the policy period but were not discovered until post-termination.  While valuable to have the added duration to report, this expansion is not standard on all policies and must be carefully structured and reviewed in each circumstance.

Which Policy Type is Generally Available?

Often, architects want to know which type of professional liability structure is more typical.  Generally, architect professional liability insurance reflects a “claims made” structure, rather than an occurrence policy, due to overall availability in the insurance marketplace. However, each coverage reporting period structure holds benefits depending on individual circumstances such as firm size, risk profile, years in operation, prior claims, etc. — also, factors affecting architect liability insurance costs in the first place.

Understanding Exclusions in Architect Liability Insurance Policies

The details contained within architect liability insurance policies often contain crucial information.  The insuring agreement is where you’ll find the exclusions, which are specific situations or activities not covered by your professional liability policy.

Common Exclusions in Architect Professional Liability Coverage

One typical exclusion is related to structural engineering or actual construction consulting services beyond usual architectural drawing tasks. If an architect decides to perform services in these areas without proper expertise, safeguards, implementation of best practices, and something, unfortunately, goes wrong, their professional liability coverage may have an outright exclusion and result in a denial of a claim.

An example could be an architect offering advice on a complex structural issue despite lacking training or experience in that area. In the event that the architect’s negligence subsequently results in damages, it’s likely the architect liability insurance company would reject any claims based on the exclusion clause in the insuring agreement. It’s important to grasp the magnitude of exclusions like this. Here are five more examples to be familiar with:

Five Specific Examples of Exclusions

  1. Punitive damages: Courts impose these as punishment for extreme misconduct; most policies don’t cover such penalties.
  2. Dishonest acts: Deliberate dishonesty or fraudulent actions aren’t typically included under coverage.
  3. Bodily injury and property damage: These are usually protected under separate general liability policies rather than professional ones.
  4. Pollution-related claims: Unless specifically endorsed in the policy, insurers tend to exclude pollution liabilities from standard forms.
  5. Contractual liabilities: Obligations assumed outside normal legal obligations might also get excluded unless properly reviewed and approved by your insurance company before signing insuring agreements.

In short, understanding what isn’t covered can save you costly surprises down the line when dealing with potential legal claims resulting from your architectural services.

When is Professional Liability Insurance Required

Often, architects are unclear when architect liability insurance is actually required to be obtained. While work on a public project may present unique circumstances, generally, professional liability insurance isn’t always a legal requirement. However, it’s an essential part of risk management for architects and design firms as it protects both the business and the client from potentially large losses, particularly where a large project is introduced like an apartment complex or sprawling retail shopping center.

Contractual Obligations

Ultimately, the necessity for this type of insurance (besides best practices to self-implement) often arises out of contractual obligations with clients or construction projects. These contracts typically demand that, among other coverages, professional liability policies protecting architects are maintained throughout the duration of any given assignment. Often the specifics of the insurance may be spelled out in the contract such as the minimum per occurrence and aggregate limits available under the architect liability insurance to be obtained.

The client is then typically added as an additional insured under the architects insurance. This stipulation ensures protection on both ends if there were ever architectural services rendered that resulted in costly damages due to flaws or oversights. in fact, The American Institute Of Architects (AIA), educates and advocates that its members maintain such coverages as an important practice within their profession.

Licensing Requirements

Beyond contract clauses, certain states may require proof of coverage before granting licenses to operate professionally in architecture fields; these jurisdictions have specific rules about maintaining minimum levels while practicing professionally which underscores how vital understanding local regulations around architect liability insurance cost could be for practitioners. You should consult your attorney for further guidance to make sure you nail this down properly.

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Endorsements and other insurance coverage for architects

As we promised earlier, in addition to professional liability policies covering architects, there are a variety of additional coverages that an architect or architectural firm might consider. These include general liability policies, workers’ compensation insurance, cyber liability insurance, employment practices liability insurance (EPLI), business personal property insurance (BPPI), as well as commercial umbrella policies.

General Liability Insurance

General liability insurance provides coverage for claims of bodily injury, property damage, and personal injury that may arise during their professional services. This type of insurance is designed to protect architects from financial losses resulting from legal actions brought against them by clients, contractors, or other third parties.  For example, if a client slips and falls at an architect’s office during a design review meeting, general liability insurance can cover any medical expenses or legal costs associated with the incident.

Similarly, if an architect accidentally damages a client’s property while conducting site visits or inspections, this insurance can help cover the repair or replacement costs. Also important, under some policies, general liability insurance for architects covers claims related to personal injury such as defamation (libel or slander) and invasion of privacy. If an architect unintentionally makes false statements about another person that harm their reputation or violate someone’s privacy rights while gathering information for a project, architects general liability insurance can protect against potential lawsuits, settlements, and court awards.

Commercial Umbrella Policy

It provides additional liability protection beyond the limits of their primary insurance policies, such as general liability and professional liability insurance. Accidents or mistakes can happen during construction projects, leading to property damage or bodily injury claims against you. Without adequate coverage, these claims could result in significant financial losses that may jeopardize your business. If a claim exceeds the coverage provided by your primary policy, the umbrella policy kicks in to cover the remaining costs up to the applicable limit.

Workers Compensation Insurance

Workers’ compensation insurance for architects is a type of coverage that provides financial protection to architects in the event of work-related injuries or illnesses. This insurance is designed to cover medical expenses, lost wages, and rehabilitation costs for the firm’s employees who are injured while performing their job duties. Architects face unique risks in their profession, such as falls from heights, repetitive motion injuries, and exposure to hazardous materials.

In most states in the US, workers’ compensation insurance is mandatory for employers with employees. This means that architectural firms are required by law to carry this type of insurance coverage for their staff members. Failure to comply with this requirement can result in significant penalties and legal consequences.

Cyber Liability Insurance

The undeniable arrival of the digital age has introduced new vulnerabilities as well – data breaches being a prime example.  Architects are strong advocates and users of digital technologies and have access to various confidential project and client information.  These breaches can result in the exposure of this sensitive client or project data, which in turn leads to significant expenses related to legal actions, notification requirements, recovery efforts, and even protecting the reputation of the business.

Employment Practices Liability (or EPLI)

This insurance protects against claims made by employees or former employees related to employment practices such as wrongful termination, discrimination, harassment, and retaliation. Architects face unique risks when it comes to employment practices due to their interactions with clients, contractors, and other staff members. EPLI insurance helps protect architects from potential legal expenses and damages that may arise from these types of claims.

Business Personal Property Insurance (BPPI)

This insurance protects the physical assets and belongings owned by an architect’s business, such as computers, office furniture, design tools, and other equipment. Architects rely heavily on their business personal property to carry out their work effectively. In the event of damage or loss due to unforeseen circumstances like fire, theft, or natural disasters, this insurance can help cover the cost of repairing or replacing these essential items.

Cost Considerations for Architect Liability Insurance

Navigating the expense of liability coverage for professionals can be an added task, but with an awareness of what factors affect it, it’s a bit more straightforward. Let’s take a quick look at some key cost considerations.

Average Premium Costs

To give you an idea, annual premiums for architect liability insurance typically range from $1,500 to $3,000 annually for coverage limits of 1 million per claim/2 million aggregate. Of course, premiums aren’t always the same as they depend on the situation for each architect or firm.

Factors Influencing Cost

Many different factors come into play when determining the cost of architect insurance. Many carriers offering professional liability insurance, however, focus on these key considerations:

1. Professional experience: Insurance companies consider the number of years an architect has been practicing and their track record when determining premiums. More experienced architects may be seen as less risky to insure.

2. Type of projects: The complexity and scale of architectural projects can impact insurance premiums. Architects working on high-risk projects, such as large commercial buildings or healthcare facilities, may face higher premiums due to increased liability exposure.

3. Claims history: A history of previous claims can affect insurance costs for architects. If an architect has had multiple claims filed against them in the past, insurers may view them as a higher risk and charge higher premiums accordingly.

4. Coverage limits: While more straightforward perhaps, the amount of coverage an architect selects also plays a role in determining their premium rates. Higher coverage limits generally result in higher premiums since it increases the potential payout by the insurer.

5. Location: Insurance rates can vary based on where an architect practices due to regional factors like local regulations, building codes, and litigation trends specific to that area.

6. Business size: The size of an architectural firm can impact insurance costs as well. Larger firms with more employees and greater revenue will likely pay more for coverage compared to smaller firms with fewer resources.

7. Risk management practices: Insurers often evaluate an architect’s risk management procedures before setting premium rates. Architects who have implemented effective safety protocols and risk mitigation strategies are typically viewed more favorably by insurers and could benefit from credits and lower premiums.

8. Professional affiliations: Membership in professional organizations or associations related to architecture can sometimes lead to discounted insurance rates through group policies negotiated by these entities.

9. Changes in industry standards or regulations: Changes in local or national laws or regulations applicable to a specific architectural practice could impact insurance requirements and subsequently influence premium costs for firms.

10. Claims-made vs. occurrence-based policies: The type of professional liability policy chosen (claims-made or occurrence-based) affects how long after a project is completed an architect can file a claim (i.e. during the current policy period or after, depending on the policy type). This choice may impact premium rates as well depending on the operational structure of the architecture firm as well as the availability of one insurance product or the other.

Deductible Impact on Premiums

Architects often ask how the deductible amount selected factors into premium calculations. Generally, choosing a higher deductible will lower your premium because it reduces the potential payout for insurers in case of a claim. While opting for a larger deductible can save you money on your policy payments initially, keep in mind that if any issues arise that lead to legal costs related to design flaws or other professional liabilities, those initial savings could be impacted as you dip into the self-insurance amount (i.e. deductible) before the claim begins to be covered by the carrier.

Important bonus note: When selecting an insurance policy for your architecture firm, it’s crucial to not only consider price but also ensure comprehensive coverage. Choosing solely based on lower rates could leave gaps in coverage that might prove costly later on.

FAQs About Architect Liability Insurance

Why do architects need insurance?

Architects require insurance to protect against potential lawsuits or claims related to errors, omissions, or negligence in their professional services. Essentially, it covers resulting legal fees, settlement costs, and damages for unforeseen mistakes.

What insurance do you need as an architect?

An architect typically needs Professional Liability Insurance (also known as E&O coverage), General Liability Insurance, Workers Compensation Insurance, Cyber Liability Insurance, Employment Practices Liability Insurance, Business Personal Property Coverage, and Commercial Umbrella Insurance.

What is the most common claim against architects?

The most common claim against architects often involves allegations of design or material changes without proper documentation, leading to property damage or financial loss for clients.

Should architects carry professional liability insurance?

Yes. Professional liability insurance protects architects from costly litigation due to alleged mistakes or oversights in their work. Many contracts or project bids also mandate it.


Architect liability insurance coverage provides essential financial protection for both the firm and the client. This coverage protects against claims that may arise due to design errors or omissions or other mistakes in the provision of architectural services.

There are different types of policies available, such as claims-made and occurrence-based policies, each with unique benefits. It’s crucial to be aware of the policy’s exclusions, which helps architects assess their exposures and individual risk tolerance, and set realistic expectations.

Besides professional liability coverage, other types of insurance like general liability insurance provide extra layers of protection for your firm. Designing a comprehensive insurance program that includes architect liability insurance (or professional liability coverage) as the risk-management centerpiece is ultimately essential for any architect or firm practicing in the profession in 2023!


DISCLAIMER: The information provided in this blog post is intended for general educational purposes only and should not be relied upon by any individual or party for any specific purpose. Additionally, the information contained herein is not regularly updated. Neither this blog post nor any of its content (express or implied) should be considered as legal, financial, health, or other professional advice. It is essential to consult with your own advisors regarding any matters discussed in this blog post or elsewhere. Notable Risk LLC and its owners, members, managers, directors, officers, partners, consultants and similar entities do not make any representation or warranty regarding the accuracy or completeness of the information presented in this blog post or elsewhere.

Updated: September 30, 2023